Introduction Ray Model
1. Optical fiber is basically a solid glass rod. The diameter of rod is so small that it looks like a
2. Optical fiber is a dielectric waveguide. The light travels like an electromagnetic wave inside
the waveguide. The dielectric
waveguide is different from a metallic waveguide which is used at microwave and millimeter
3. In a metallic waveguide, there is a complete shielding of electromagnetic radiation but in an
optical fiber the electromagnetic radiation is not just confined inside the fiber but also extends outside the fiber.
4. The light gets guided inside the structure, through the basic phenomenon of total internal
5. The optical fiber consists of two concentric cylinders; the inside solid cylinder is called the
core and the surrounding
6. For the light to propagate inside the fiber through total internal reflections at core-cladding
interface, the refractive index of the core must be greater than the refractive index of the cladding. That is .